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19 Benefits of Hibiscus: Blood Pressure Regulator, Cancer Fighter, Liver Protector, and Much More!

Botanical Name: Hibiscus sabdariffa

Family: Malvaceae

Other Common Names: Roselle, agua/rosa/flor de Jamaica, sorrel, karkade, zobo, bissap, cranberry hibiscus, Florida cranberry, tea hibiscus

Parts Used: Calyxes, young leaves, young stems, seeds, roots, flowers

Energetics: Moist

Thermal Properties: Cool

Actions: Antimicrobial, antihelmintic, antidepressive, anti-inflammatory, antilithic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiac tonic, demulcent, diuretic, hepatic, hypotensive

Taste: Sour (with hints of sweetness)

Plant Uses: Hibiscus is used to cool and soothe the body. It also has favorable qualities for modulating glucose levels, supporting steady energy, and reducing belly fat. Hibiscus supports heart, kidney, and liver health, and reduces inflammation.

Plant Preparations: Hibiscus is used to flavor and color many food items, including teas, foods, and vinegars. The leaves and petals are sometimes used as a substitute for the plant’s calyxes, and the entire plant is edible. Alcohol extracts are not common, due to alcohol’s poor ability to extract the mucilaginous properties of hibiscus.

Toxicities/Warnings: Hibiscus may interfere with the absorption and elimination of certain drugs. Its blood pressure– and blood glucose–affecting properties can potentiate the effects of drugs with the same indications. Pregnant women may want to avoid hibiscus, at least during the first trimester. Pets should not be given hibiscus at all.

[Attribution – “Popperipopp [CC BY 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)]”]

Introduction

Many people know hibiscus as a decorative plant with large, colorful blooms. But less well known is that most (perhaps all) members of the Hibiscus genus are in some way edible. Hibiscus sabdariffa is especially prized for its use in teas and in other foods.

The name Hibiscus comes from the Greek word for marshmallow. This makes sense, because hibiscus is in the mallow family, which includes marshmallow, and shares several characteristics with it. The name sabdariffa is the common name for this species in West Indian.

Hibiscus sabdariffa is one of the most popular members of the genus, having been cultivated for thousands of years. It is used as a food and as a medicine throughout much of the tropical and subtropical world. Hibiscus has a pleasant, tart flavor, similar to cranberry, with light floral notes and just a hint of sweetness.

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Hibiscus is the basis for several regional drinks people use to help cool off during hot, tropical summers. As a member of the mallow family, hibiscus is slightly mucilaginous. The drink has no slimy or off-putting texture, but does help to lightly coat the throat and protect it from dryness and particulate irritants. On this note, let us move on to the next section and look into the many other benefits of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

Benefits

  • Delicious: Hibiscus is an excellent beverage alternative for those wishing to cut out sodas, but wanting something more interesting than water.
  • Demulcent: Sooth and rehydrate a parched throat, and quiet chronic coughs, with hibiscus tea.1)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.
  • Energy Boost: Hibiscus supports healthy mitochondrial function and can speed up the metabolism.2)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.3)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.
  • Heart Health: Blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides are all positively affected by hibiscus.4)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.5)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.6)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.7)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.
  • Anticancer: Studies are showing that hibiscus increases the rates of cancer cell death in leukemia and multiple forms of gastric carcinoma, and has a positive effect on prostate cancer.8)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.9)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.10)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.11)”Crude Extracts and Phytochemicals Derived from H. Sabdariffa Has Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, and Anticancer Properties.” GreenMedinfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/crude-extracts-and-phytochemicals-derived-h-sabdariffa-has-antimicrobial-antip.12)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extract Led to the Reduced Invasiveness of Prostate Cancer Cells.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-extract-led-reduced-invasiveness-prostate-cancer-cells.13)”Oral Administration of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Anthocyanins Remarkably Inhibited Progression of NMU-induced Leukemia by Approximately 33% in Rats.” GreenMedInfo. July 03, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/oral-administration-hibiscus-sabdariffa-anthocyanins-remarkably-inhibited-prog.
  • Support Healthy Weight: Hibiscus helps to reduce abdominal fat and fat in the liver.14)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.15)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.16)”Consumption of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts Reduced Obesity, Abdominal Fat, Serum FFA and Improved Liver Steatosis.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/consumption-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-reduced-obesity-abdominal-fat-serum-f.
  • Support Healthy Cognition: Consuming hibiscus can help support clear thinking and memory.17)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.18)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.19)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Attenuates Diabetes-associated Cognitive Impairment in Mice.” GreenMedInfo. April 12, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-attenuates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-impairment-mice.
  • Stroke: Hibiscus tea helps to support a healthy blood pressure, which can reduce your chances of stroke. 20)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.
  • Liver Protection: Hibiscus reduces the chance of fatty liver disease and protects the liver from damaging chemicals.21)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.22)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.23)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.24)”An Anthocyanin-rich Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyces Had Hepatoprotective Activity.” GreenMedInfo. August 31, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/anthocyanin-rich-extract-hibiscus-sabdariffa-calyces-had-hepatoprotective-acti.25)”Consumption of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts Reduced Obesity, Abdominal Fat, Serum FFA and Improved Liver Steatosis.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/consumption-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-reduced-obesity-abdominal-fat-serum-f.
  • Relieve Anemia: Consuming hibiscus products can help you maintain a healthy level of iron in the blood.26)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.27)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Meal Improves Iron Status of Childbearing Age Women and Prevents Stunting in Their Toddlers.” GreenMedInfo. January 31, 2019. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-meal-improves-iron-status-childbearing-age-women-and-preve.
  • Beneficial for Diabetics: Hibiscus can help improve insulin-resistance levels and glucose levels.28)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.29)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.30)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.31)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Attenuates Diabetes-associated Cognitive Impairment in Mice.” GreenMedInfo. April 12, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-attenuates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-impairment-mice.
  • Immune System: Hibiscus supports the actions of a healthy immune system in a variety of ways.32)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.
  • Relaxing Mood Lifter: Hibiscus is a natural antidepressant, and can help relieve insomnia.33)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.34)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.35)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.
  • Diuretic: Hibiscus helps to support healthy kidney function.36)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.37)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Consumption Improved Indices of Renal Function in Patients with Mild to Moderate Hypertension.” GreenMedInfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-consumption-improved-indices-renal-function-patients-mild-.
  • Increased Antioxidant Capacity: Not only is hibiscus high in antioxidants, but it also increases your body’s capacity for antioxidants, helping to decrease oxidative stress.38)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.39)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.40)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.41)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.42)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Has a Remarkable Potential to Counteract UVC-caused Impairments, Probably through Its Antioxidant and Free Radical Defusing Effects.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-has-remarkable-potential-counteract-uvc-caused-impairments.
  • Kidney Stones: Hibiscus helps to prevent and flush out kidney stones.43)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.44)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.45)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.
  • Decreased Inflammation: Hibiscus can help reduce harmful, chronic inflammation.46)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.47)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.
  • Cooling: Whether you’re reducing a fever or just cooling off on a hot day, the cooling properties of hibiscus can help.48)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.
  • Antimicrobial: Hibiscus has been shown to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic power.49)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.50)”Hibiscus Tea Kills Deadly Avian Flu Virus, Study Finds.” GreenMedInfo. July 03, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/hibiscus-tea-kills-deadly-avian-flu-virus-study-finds-2.51)”Crude Extracts and Phytochemicals Derived from H. Sabdariffa Has Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, and Anticancer Properties.” GreenMedinfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/crude-extracts-and-phytochemicals-derived-h-sabdariffa-has-antimicrobial-antip.52)”Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Could Be Used Alone, or in Combination with Antibiotics for the Treatment of HP Infection.” GreenMedInfo. June 15, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/aqueous-extracts-hibiscus-sabdariffa-could-be-used-alone-or-combination-antibi.53)”H. Sabdariffa Is a Most Promising Source for New Natural and Effective Antibacterials.” GreenMedInfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/h-sabdariffa-most-promising-source-new-natural-and-effective-antibacterials.54)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Attenuates Diabetes-associated Cognitive Impairment in Mice.” GreenMedInfo. April 12, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-attenuates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-impairment-mice.

Medicinal Properties

A glass of iced hibiscus tea is more than an alternative to sugary sodas and juice. It helps to promote correct mitochondrial function and keep your energy levels steady.55)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.56)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.57)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. It’s a weight loss aid, too, helping people lose stubborn abdominal fat.58)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.59)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.60)”Consumption of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts Reduced Obesity, Abdominal Fat, Serum FFA and Improved Liver Steatosis.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/consumption-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-reduced-obesity-abdominal-fat-serum-f. Hibiscus also helps to prevent and remove fat formation in the liver and can act as a liver protectant against chemical damage.61)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.62)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.63)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.64)”An Anthocyanin-rich Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyces Had Hepatoprotective Activity.” GreenMedInfo. August 31, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/anthocyanin-rich-extract-hibiscus-sabdariffa-calyces-had-hepatoprotective-acti.65)”Consumption of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts Reduced Obesity, Abdominal Fat, Serum FFA and Improved Liver Steatosis.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/consumption-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-reduced-obesity-abdominal-fat-serum-f.

Hibiscus seems to have an affinity for the circulatory system.66)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.67)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. It helps to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and has a blood pressure–lowering effect that was found to be more effective than commonly prescribed diuretic medications.68)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.69)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.70)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.71)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. This effect was most noticeable when hibiscus was taken over time.

Hibiscus can also help boost circulation to the heart and brain. Taking it regularly may help to decrease the chances of having a stroke or heart attack.72)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.

Also related to the blood, hibiscus has traditionally been used as a treatment for anemia.73)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. This use has now been validated by modern science. One study found that, when consumed as a food, hibiscus helped to maintain the iron levels in the blood of women of childbearing age.74)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Meal Improves Iron Status of Childbearing Age Women and Prevents Stunting in Their Toddlers.” GreenMedInfo. January 31, 2019. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-meal-improves-iron-status-childbearing-age-women-and-preve.

Hibiscus also has several mind-related benefits. Hibiscus is a natural antidepressant and helps to relieve insomnia.75)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.76)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. It also promotes clear thinking and memory.77)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.78)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. In addition, hibiscus helps the body to balance glucose levels and increase insulin sensitivity, and may help to protect cognitive function in diabetics.79)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.80)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.81)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.82)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Attenuates Diabetes-associated Cognitive Impairment in Mice.” GreenMedInfo. April 12, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-attenuates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-impairment-mice.

The high antioxidant levels of hibiscus help to absorb free radicals in the body and lower inflammation.83)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.84)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.85)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.86)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Has a Remarkable Potential to Counteract UVC-caused Impairments, Probably through Its Antioxidant and Free Radical Defusing Effects.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-has-remarkable-potential-counteract-uvc-caused-impairments. Beyond this, hibiscus enhances the body’s ability to absorb and use antioxidants. This can help to increase the effectiveness of vitamin C in the body and generally increase the effectiveness of the immune system.87)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.88)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.

Hibiscus has great potential as an antimicrobial herb.89)”H. Sabdariffa Is a Most Promising Source for New Natural and Effective Antibacterials.” GreenMedInfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/h-sabdariffa-most-promising-source-new-natural-and-effective-antibacterials. It combats several bacterial and viral infections, and even some parasites.90)”Crude Extracts and Phytochemicals Derived from H. Sabdariffa Has Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, and Anticancer Properties.” GreenMedinfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/crude-extracts-and-phytochemicals-derived-h-sabdariffa-has-antimicrobial-antip. Hibiscus has been shown in studies to be effective against Helicobacter pylori, a bacteria that can cause ulcers; Escherichia coli; staph; and avian flu. It is a traditional treatment for shingles.91)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.92)”Hibiscus Tea Kills Deadly Avian Flu Virus, Study Finds.” GreenMedInfo. July 03, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/hibiscus-tea-kills-deadly-avian-flu-virus-study-finds-2.93)”Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Could Be Used Alone, or in Combination with Antibiotics for the Treatment of HP Infection.” GreenMedInfo. June 15, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/aqueous-extracts-hibiscus-sabdariffa-could-be-used-alone-or-combination-antibi.94)Higginbotham, Kristen L., Kellie P. Burris, Svetlana Zivanovic, P. Michael Davidson, and C. Neal Stewart. “Antimicrobial Activity of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Aqueous Extracts against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus Aureus in a Microbiological Medium and Milk of Various Fat Concentrations.” Journal of Food Protection77, no. 2 (2014): 262-68. doi:10.4315/0362-028x.jfp-13-313.

Hibiscus is a diuretic that helps to facilitate healthy kidney function.95)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. It increases urine volume to help flush out existing kidney stones and may may help to prevent future stones from forming.96)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.97)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.98)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.99)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.100)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Consumption Improved Indices of Renal Function in Patients with Mild to Moderate Hypertension.” GreenMedInfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-consumption-improved-indices-renal-function-patients-mild-.

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Hibiscus also shows promise in anticancer treatments. Hibiscus extracts have been shown to decrease cancer formation and increase the self-destruction of cancer cells in multiple types of gastric carcinomas and leukemia. It has also been shown to have a positive effect on prostate cancer.101)”Hibiscus Tea: A Soothing Elixir.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/05/23/ditch-soda-try-hibiscus-tea.aspx.102)”Hibiscus Extract Inhibits Obesity and Offers Liver Protection.” Mercola.com. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2014/03/21/hibiscus-extract.aspx.103)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.104)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.105)”Crude Extracts and Phytochemicals Derived from H. Sabdariffa Has Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, and Anticancer Properties.” GreenMedinfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/crude-extracts-and-phytochemicals-derived-h-sabdariffa-has-antimicrobial-antip.106)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Meal Improves Iron Status of Childbearing Age Women and Prevents Stunting in Their Toddlers.” GreenMedInfo. January 31, 2019. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-meal-improves-iron-status-childbearing-age-women-and-preve.107)”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extract Led to the Reduced Invasiveness of Prostate Cancer Cells.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-extract-led-reduced-invasiveness-prostate-cancer-cells.108)”Oral Administration of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Anthocyanins Remarkably Inhibited Progression of NMU-induced Leukemia by Approximately 33% in Rats.” GreenMedInfo. July 03, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/oral-administration-hibiscus-sabdariffa-anthocyanins-remarkably-inhibited-prog.

Nutrition Properties

While the hibiscus plant does contain several nutrients, most applications will use water-based extracts from the plant. Water-soluble nutrients will carry over, but the total nutrition will be lower than the amounts represented in the chart below.

Hibiscus Nutrition Chart

How to Use/Prepare/Typical Dosing

Hibiscus Tea

  • 4 cups water
  • 1-2 Tablespoons dried hibiscus calyxes
  • Sugar or honey to taste

Bring the water to a boil. Remove from heat and add hibiscus. Cover and allow to steep for 20 minutes. Hibiscus tea can be served hot or cold and is often served over ice. You can also cold brew hibiscus tea by letting the calyxes sit in water overnight. Hibiscus leaves are sometimes substituted for the calyxes when making tea or sorrel (see recipe below).

For a pleasant twist, steep with mint or lemongrass. You might also add a splash of lime juice. If you’re looking for a safe, natural alternative to sugar, use stevia in place of the sugar. It’s a plant-based, zero-calorie sweetener.

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Sorrel

Sorrel is a traditional drink made with hibiscus. Recipes vary from person to person. You can use a hot or cold brewing method. The quantities listed below are suggestions. Have fun altering the recipe to suit your own tastes!

Main Ingredients

  • 8 cups water
  • 1 cup dried hibiscus calyxes

Other Options

  • 1 cinnamon stick
  • 4 cloves
  • Brown sugar to taste
  • 1/2 teaspoon ginger powder or 1 thick slice of fresh ginger root
  • A piece or 2 of orange peel
  • 1 anise seed pod
  • Rum, to taste
  • Wine, to taste

Add all of the non-alcoholic ingredients to a stainless steel pan and bring them to a boil. Reduce heat and let the contents simmer for 20 minutes. Remove the sorrel from heat and allow it to cool. Add rum or wine, if desired. Your sorrel can be stored in the refrigerator for about a week. Serve with ice.

For the cold-brewed version, place all of the ingredients together, cover, and leave them overnight.

Sorbet

  • 5 cups water (divided)
  • 1 cup hibiscus calixes
  • 1 cup sugar
  • Lemon or lime juice

Bring 4 cups of water to a boil. Add the hibiscus and simmer for 20 minutes. Allow this to cool, and place it in your refrigerator. Let it sit for 8 hours. This will allow the flavors to continue infusing into the liquid.

Next, you will need to make a simple syrup. Dissolve 1 cup of sugar into 1 cup of water over medium heat. Allow the mixture to sit at medium heat for another 7 minutes. Now remove it from the heat and allow it to cool.

Remove your hibiscus tea from the refrigerator and strain out the calyxes. Combine 2 cups of hibiscus tea with 1 cup of simple syrup. Add 1-1/2 tablespoons of lemon or lime juice. Pour this into an ice cream maker, and let it run according to the manufacturer’s directions.

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Hibiscus Pancakes

Hibiscus can be used to flavor any number of recipes, from jams and breads to candies and more. Here is an example of a simple pancake recipe, livened up with hibiscus:

  • 1-1/2 cups flour
  • 2 Tablespoons sugar
  • 1 Tablespoon baking powder
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 2 large eggs
  • 1 cup milk
  • A handful of hibiscus calyxes
  • 4 Tablespoons butter
  • A splash of vanilla

The only modification from a normal pancake recipe is to first infuse the milk with hibiscus. To do this, place the milk and hibiscus in a blender and let them blend for around 10 seconds. Pour this into an airtight container and let it sit in the fridge overnight. In the morning, strain out the hibiscus pulp and proceed with the rest of the recipe.

Preheat your griddle. Whip the eggs and milk together until frothy. Melt the butter and set it aside. Mix the dry ingredients, then pour the wet ingredients into the dry. Do not overmix. Pour the melted butter into your batter and gently incorporate it. Lightly oil the griddle and cook pancakes as normal.

Precaution/Dangers/Contraindications

Hibiscus is typically well-tolerated, with only minor risks or side effects. However, you may want to keep a few cautions in mind. When taken together, hibiscus may decrease the availability of certain drugs, such as chloroquine.109)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. This phenomenon is true of many plants in the mallow family. Often this is due to the plant’s mucilaginous polysaccharides lining the stomach and medicine, creating a physical barrier to absorption.

Hibiscus can also affect the way your body processes acetaminophen, increasing the rate at which you expel the drug. It is not clear whether or not this poses any extra risk. However, the phenomenon can be avoided by not taking acetaminophen within 3 hours of consuming hibiscus.110)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.111)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. Hibiscus also has a mixed effect on the excretion of the drug diclofenac, and can inhibit the actions of medications that use Cytochrome P450 enzymes.112)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/. If you have any questions or concerns, you should talk with your physician.

Those taking medications for blood pressure and blood sugar may also wish to avoid hibiscus, or use it in a more limited manner. Hibiscus can lower blood pressure and blood sugar levels, and may potentiate the effects of drugs that have the same effects.113)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.114)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Hibiscus: Hibiscus Sabdariffa.” HerbMentor. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/hibiscus/.

Hibiscus has an emmenagogue effect. That is, it can be used to help induce menstruation. Because of this, herbalists often encourage that pregnant women avoid hibiscus tea.115)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/. However, some find it to be safe after the first trimester.

In a surprising contrast to its liver-protecting benefits, hibiscus can become toxic to the liver when taken in extremely large doses. Consuming this much hibiscus in tea form would be challenging, but it is technically possible. Many sources advise drinking up to 4 8-ounce glasses of hibiscus tea per day. This should be well within the safe zone.116)Edwards, Rebekah. “Hibiscus Tea: The Antioxidant ‘Therapeutic Agent ‘ You Should Be Drinking.” Dr. Axe. September 24, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. https://draxe.com/hibiscus-tea/.

Lastly, pets should not be fed hibiscus. Hibiscus appears to be mildly toxic to cats and moderately toxic to dogs. Cats usually recover within 48 hours, without medical intervention.117)Wag! “Hibiscus Poisoning in Cats – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost.” WagWalking. January 24, 2017. Accessed May 22, 2019. https://wagwalking.com/cat/condition/hibiscus-poisoning-1. Dogs may require veterinary care, especially if they consume part of the root.118)Wag! “Hibiscus Poisoning in Dogs – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost.” WagWalking. September 21, 2016. Accessed May 22, 2019. jQuery('#footnote_plugin_tooltip_920121_1_118').tooltip({ tip: '#footnote_plugin_tooltip_text_920121_1_118', tipClass: 'footnote_tooltip', effect: 'fade', predelay: 0, fadeInSpeed: 200, delay: 400, fadeOutSpeed: 200, position: 'top right', relative: true, offset: [5, 5], });">https://wagwalking.com/condition/hibiscus-poisoning.[/note] The severity of the reaction can very depending on the species of hibiscus.

Plant ID

Hibiscus is a fast-growing plant that can reach up to 2 meters in height. The large, showy flowers grow up to 5 inches across and emerge from leaf axils (where the leaf meets the stem). The leaves are alternate, simple, and deeply lobed. They tend to be green with red veins and grow up to 5 inches long.

Blooms have 5 petals and are typically white, or near-white, around the edges and maroon in the center. They become pink as they wither. However, due to its long history of wide-spread cultivation, some color variation is possible.

After blooming, the plant will develop deep red calyxes. Each of these will contain a green seed capsule with brown, kidney-shaped seeds.

Hibiscus sabdariffa can be confused with other members of the Hibiscus genus. Fortunately, many are used as food and medicine around the world, and most species have been confirmed as edible in some way. Other hibiscus species may have less palatable flavors, but the danger of poisoning from this family is low.

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The cotton plant is the only confirmed member of the Malovaceae family to be toxic. However, this is no guarantee that an inedible hibiscus hasn’t slipped past the edible plant community. Members of the Hibiscus genus should be taken on a species-by-species basis. Before using any plant as food or medicine, you should always be completely sure in its identification.

Where It Grows and Where to Find It

Hibiscus has a long history of cultivation. It’s place of origin has been lost to time, however its current range includes most of the tropic and subtropic world. It prefers full sun, but will tolerate partial shade and is very tolerant of various soil conditions, water levels, and soil pH levels.

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In colder regions, hibiscus is also grown as an annual or kept in a greenhouse over winter. When grown as an annual, the seeds must be started early, as hibiscus requires a long growing season. You can increase your germination success by first soaking the seeds for 24 hours. Some people also scarify the seeds.

Learn more about seed germination in “Free Plants for Everyone,” a book by David the Good. 

[Attribution – “Dinesh Valke from Thane, India [CC BY-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)]”]

How and When to Harvest

While the calyxes are easily the most popular part of the plant, the entire Hibiscus sabdariffa plant is edible.

  • Flowers: Pluck the large, showy flowers as they bloom. Don’t wait too long. These are not long-lived.
  • Calyxes: After blooming, the calyx (sepals) of the plant will swell and turn deep red in color. The calyx will feel solid when ready, and should easily snap off.
  • Seeds: Harvest these from mature, dried calyxes. Save them to plant next year, or crush them and use them in flours.
  • Leaves and Stems: While all of the leaves and stems are technically edible, the younger ones are preferred.
  • Roots: The roots can be harvested at any time. However, they are usually fibrous and may not be worth eating.

Conclusion

There’s no mystery about why so many different cultures use hibiscus. It’s a beautiful plant with a long history as a delicious food and medicine. Let us know your recipes, experiences, and questions below!

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______________________________

Psst! Our Lawyer Wants You to Read This Big, Bad Medical Disclaimer –> The contents of this article, made available via The Grow Network (TGN), are for informational purposes only and do not constitute medical advice; the content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health care provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. If you think you may be suffering from any medical condition, you should seek immediate medical attention. You should never delay seeking medical advice, disregard medical advice, or discontinue medical treatment because of information provided by TGN. Reliance on any information provided by this article is solely at your own risk. And, of course, never eat a wild plant without first checking with a local expert.

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References

References
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11, 51, 90, 105 ”Crude Extracts and Phytochemicals Derived from H. Sabdariffa Has Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, and Anticancer Properties.” GreenMedinfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/crude-extracts-and-phytochemicals-derived-h-sabdariffa-has-antimicrobial-antip.
12, 107 ”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extract Led to the Reduced Invasiveness of Prostate Cancer Cells.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-extract-led-reduced-invasiveness-prostate-cancer-cells.
13, 108 ”Oral Administration of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Anthocyanins Remarkably Inhibited Progression of NMU-induced Leukemia by Approximately 33% in Rats.” GreenMedInfo. July 03, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/oral-administration-hibiscus-sabdariffa-anthocyanins-remarkably-inhibited-prog.
16, 25, 60, 65 ”Consumption of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts Reduced Obesity, Abdominal Fat, Serum FFA and Improved Liver Steatosis.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/consumption-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-reduced-obesity-abdominal-fat-serum-f.
19, 31, 54, 82 ”Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Attenuates Diabetes-associated Cognitive Impairment in Mice.” GreenMedInfo. April 12, 2018. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-attenuates-diabetes-associated-cognitive-impairment-mice.
24, 64 ”An Anthocyanin-rich Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyces Had Hepatoprotective Activity.” GreenMedInfo. August 31, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/anthocyanin-rich-extract-hibiscus-sabdariffa-calyces-had-hepatoprotective-acti.
27, 74, 106 ”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Meal Improves Iron Status of Childbearing Age Women and Prevents Stunting in Their Toddlers.” GreenMedInfo. January 31, 2019. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-meal-improves-iron-status-childbearing-age-women-and-preve.
37, 100 ”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Consumption Improved Indices of Renal Function in Patients with Mild to Moderate Hypertension.” GreenMedInfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-consumption-improved-indices-renal-function-patients-mild-.
42, 86 ”Hibiscus Sabdariffa Has a Remarkable Potential to Counteract UVC-caused Impairments, Probably through Its Antioxidant and Free Radical Defusing Effects.” GreenMedInfo. July 02, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/hibiscus-sabdariffa-has-remarkable-potential-counteract-uvc-caused-impairments.
50, 92 ”Hibiscus Tea Kills Deadly Avian Flu Virus, Study Finds.” GreenMedInfo. July 03, 2015. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/hibiscus-tea-kills-deadly-avian-flu-virus-study-finds-2.
52, 93 ”Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Could Be Used Alone, or in Combination with Antibiotics for the Treatment of HP Infection.” GreenMedInfo. June 15, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/aqueous-extracts-hibiscus-sabdariffa-could-be-used-alone-or-combination-antibi.
53, 89 ”H. Sabdariffa Is a Most Promising Source for New Natural and Effective Antibacterials.” GreenMedInfo. June 13, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2019. http://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/h-sabdariffa-most-promising-source-new-natural-and-effective-antibacterials.
94 Higginbotham, Kristen L., Kellie P. Burris, Svetlana Zivanovic, P. Michael Davidson, and C. Neal Stewart. “Antimicrobial Activity of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Aqueous Extracts against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus Aureus in a Microbiological Medium and Milk of Various Fat Concentrations.” Journal of Food Protection77, no. 2 (2014): 262-68. doi:10.4315/0362-028x.jfp-13-313.
117 Wag! “Hibiscus Poisoning in Cats – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost.” WagWalking. January 24, 2017. Accessed May 22, 2019. https://wagwalking.com/cat/condition/hibiscus-poisoning-1.
118 Wag! “Hibiscus Poisoning in Dogs – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost.” WagWalking. September 21, 2016. Accessed May 22, 2019. function footnote_expand_reference_container_920121_1() { jQuery('#footnote_references_container_920121_1').show(); jQuery('#footnote_reference_container_collapse_button_920121_1').text('−'); } function footnote_collapse_reference_container_920121_1() { jQuery('#footnote_references_container_920121_1').hide(); jQuery('#footnote_reference_container_collapse_button_920121_1').text('+'); } function footnote_expand_collapse_reference_container_920121_1() { if (jQuery('#footnote_references_container_920121_1').is(':hidden')) { footnote_expand_reference_container_920121_1(); } else { footnote_collapse_reference_container_920121_1(); } } function footnote_moveToReference_920121_1(p_str_TargetID) { footnote_expand_reference_container_920121_1(); var l_obj_Target = jQuery('#' + p_str_TargetID); if (l_obj_Target.length) { jQuery( 'html, body' ).delay( 0 ); jQuery('html, body').animate({ scrollTop: l_obj_Target.offset().top - window.innerHeight * 0.2 }, 380); } } function footnote_moveToAnchor_920121_1(p_str_TargetID) { footnote_expand_reference_container_920121_1(); var l_obj_Target = jQuery('#' + p_str_TargetID); if (l_obj_Target.length) { jQuery( 'html, body' ).delay( 0 ); jQuery('html, body').animate({ scrollTop: l_obj_Target.offset().top - window.innerHeight * 0.2 }, 380); } } Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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