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9 Benefits of Red Clover + How to Use It

The benefits of red clover support well-being for the whole family—from skin and reproductive health to hormone balance and detoxification.

9 Benefits of Red Clover + How to Use It (The Grow Network)

Red Clover

Botanical Name: Trifolium pratense

Family: Fabaceae

Other Common Names: Purple clover, trefoil, cleaver grass, cow grass

Parts Used: Aerial parts (especially flower heads)

Energetics: Neutral

Thermal Properties: Cool

Actions: Anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, alterative, diuretic, expectorant, lymphatic, mild laxative, nutritive

Taste: Salty, sweet

Plant Uses: Various skin conditions, menopausal support, bone health, brain health, spasmodic cough, cancer, lymphatic congestion, food, agricultural uses (cover crop, nitrogen fixer, erosion protection, animal feed)

Plant Preparations: Nourishing herbal infusion, tea, tincture, capsule, food

Toxicities/Warnings: May potentiate effects of blood thinning drugs. Avoid plants that show signs of mold or are otherwise unhealthy.

Introduction

Red clover offers numerous medicinal benefits (The Grow Network)

Humans and clovers have a long history together. We’ve been eating them since prehistoric times. We have long-held traditions of using red clover as a medicine, as well. Red clover is used in traditional Chinese medicine, mainly as a cleansing herb. In European and American herbal traditions, red clover was used to treat tumors and other growths, coaxing the tumors to move outward until they were pushed out of the body.1)Chevallier, Andrew. DK Natural Health: Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. New York: DK Pub., 2000.

Clovers have been symbolic of many things throughout history. They are a traditional symbol of luck, especially the rare 4-leaf variation that pops up as a result of mutation. They have been used as a symbol of Christianity, with the leaves being used to represent the Holy Trinity. During the Middle Ages, a clover was thought to be a charm against witches. And in the Victorian era, red clover was also a symbol of industry.

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The scientific name for red clover, Trifolium pratense, means “three leaves of the meadow.” This is an appropriate, if not overly simple, naming. Clovers tend to thrive in open fields and have been used by farmers to feed livestock and control erosion. As members of the pea family, clovers also help to enrich the soil by serving as host to special bacteria that can pull nitrogen from the air and infuse it into the soil.

With the invention of chemical fertilizers, clovers became less popular as a green fertilizer, though the seeds remain readily available at feed stores. Whether you find them in the field or the feed store, red clover is a plant worth bringing home.

Now, let’s take a more in-depth look at the benefits of red clover and how to prepare and use it.

Benefits of Red Clover

Benefits of red comfrey, including for female health (The Grow Network)

  • Female Health: Red clover supports reproductive health at all ages.2)“5 Benefits of Red Clover Tea.” Mercola.com. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/teas/red-clover-tea.aspx.
  • Male Health: Promote prostate health without lowering testosterone levels.3)“Study Reveals Benefits of Red Clover for Prostate and Liver Health.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/023019_red_clover_Prostate_liver.html.
  • Child Health: Red clover is a safe and effective herb for children.4)Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
  • Skin Problems: Use red clover for eczema, psoriasis, rashes, acne, fungal infection, and all other types of skin complaints.5)Chevallier, Andrew. DK Natural Health: Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. New York: DK Pub., 2000.
  • Respiratory Health: Soothe spasmodic cough and break up congestion with red clover tea.6)Chevallier, Andrew. DK Natural Health: Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. New York: DK Pub., 2000.7)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.
  • Bone Strength: Red clover is a potent source of bone- and tooth-building minerals.8)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.
  • Detox: Red clover stimulates the removal of toxins from the body, enhancing overall health.9)Gladstar, Rosemary. Rosemary Gladstars Herbal Recipes for Vibrant Health. Pownal, VT: Storey, 2009.
  • Cancer Fighter: Studies show red clover to be a fighter of various cancers, including prostate and breast cancer.10)Bone, Kerry, and Simon Mills. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy Modern Herbal Medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, 2013.11)“Induction of Apoptosis in Low to Moderate-Grade Human Prostate Carcinoma by Red Clover-Derived Dietary Isoflavones.” Induction of apoptosis in low to moderate-grade human prostate, April 19, 2009. https://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/red-clover-isoflavones-induce-programmed-cell-death-human-prostate-cells.
  • Brain: Support healthy brain function with red clover.12)“5 Benefits of Red Clover Tea.” Mercola.com. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/teas/red-clover-tea.aspx.

Medicinal Properties of Red Clover

Benefits of Red Clover for Female Health

Red clover offers benefits for female reproductive health (The Grow Network)

Red clover is often thought of as an herb for females, and it certainly has a number of beneficial properties for women. It can help women who are experiencing infertility, and is useful during pregnancy for helping to tone the uterus and nourish the mother and developing child.13)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014. Clover is also known to help relieve the symptoms of menopause by nourishing the body and delivering phytoestrogens.14)Levy, Jillian. “Look No Further for Menopause Relief … and More!” Dr. Axe, March 25, 2016. https://draxe.com/nutrition/herbs/red-clover/. These phytoestrogens help by supplementing the diminishing estrogen levels in the body.15)Chevallier, Andrew. DK Natural Health: Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. New York: DK Pub., 2000.

Hormone Regulator

Benefits of red clover include balancing estrogen and testosterone levels (The Grow Network)

Image by Janine Bolon from Pixabay

All of this might lead one to think that red clover should be avoided by men, especially men who are concerned about their testosterone levels. But this is where red clover takes an interesting turn. Clover’s phytoestrogens are both pro-estrogen and anti-estrogen.16)Chevallier, Andrew. DK Natural Health: Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. New York: DK Pub., 2000. That means that they’re also pro-testosterone and anti-testosterone.

As it turns out, clover might be better thought of as a hormone regulator than a simple estrogen booster, and some research is showing that ingestion of red clover can actually cause an increase in testosterone levels.17)Levy, Jillian. “Look No Further for Menopause Relief … and More!” Dr. Axe, March 25, 2016. https://draxe.com/nutrition/herbs/red-clover/.18)Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh, Ramin Sadeghi, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari, Khadijeh Mirzaii Najmabadi, Mojtaba Mousavi Bazaz, Somayeh Abdolahian, and Talat Khadivzadeh. “Effects of Red Clover on Hot Flash and Circulating Hormone Concentrations in Menopausal Women: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Avicenna journal of phytomedicine. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678495/. It’s even been included in some testosterone-boosting supplement formulas.

Prostate Protector

As with estrogen, clover is not simply a testosterone booster, but more of a regulator. It not only boosts testosterone levels in men, but may also help to protect men from the effects of excess testosterone. Studies have shown that red clover may help to reduce the size of an enlarged prostate and even activate the pre-programmed death of cancerous prostate cells.19)“Induction of Apoptosis in Low to Moderate-Grade Human Prostate Carcinoma by Red Clover-Derived Dietary Isoflavones.” Induction of apoptosis in low to moderate-grade human prostate, April 19, 2009. https://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/red-clover-isoflavones-induce-programmed-cell-death-human-prostate-cells.20)“Study Reveals Benefits of Red Clover for Prostate and Liver Health.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/023019_red_clover_Prostate_liver.html.21)“6 Hormone Balancing Powers Of Red Clover.” GreenMedInfo, July 3, 2015. https://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/6-hormone-balancing-powers-red-clover.

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Red clover’s influence on cancer cells isn’t just limited to prostate cancer. It has traditionally been used as a folk remedy for tumors, cancers, and other growths.22)Pedersen, Mark. Nutritional Herbology: a Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications, 2010. Modern testing supports this idea, especially in regards to breast cancer.23)Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003.24)Bone, Kerry, and Simon Mills. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy Modern Herbal Medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, 2013.25)“5 Benefits of Red Clover Tea.” Mercola.com. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/teas/red-clover-tea.aspx.

Skin Healer

Benefits of red clover include healing the skin, including acne (The Grow Network)

Image by Joseph Mucira from Pixabay

Another of red clover’s primary uses is as a skin herb. Clover is especially well known as a safe herb for children with skin problems, though it is also effective for adults.26)Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003 It helps to clear up eczema, ache, rashes, and psoriasis. Clover is equally helpful with skin infections and injuries, such as athlete’s foot, insect bites, and burns. It can be used internally as a tea and externally as a wash.27)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.

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Bone and Teeth Strengthener

Red comfrey helps make teeth strong (The Grow Network)

Image by Josef Pichler from Pixabay

While the faster-acting properties of red clover may be more noticeable at first, it’s longer-term nutritional benefits should not be overlooked. It’s high mineral content helps to mineralize and strengthen bones and teeth.28)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.29)“Red Clover Shown to Improve Bone Mineral Density and Lower LDL Cholesterol.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/025089_red_clover_estrogen_isoflavones.html. This can help to fight bone loss due to aging,  and can also accelerate their healing.30)“Red Clover Vs. White Clover.” LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.livestrong.com/article/462446-red-clover-vs-white-clover/.31)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.32)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.

Purifier

These nutritional properties, along with clover’s cleansing and purifying nature, help to return a sick or weakened body back to a state of health.33)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014. It is often paired with other purifying and nourishing herbs, such as burdock or yellow dock. And the chain of benefits continues. It’s purifying powers help to boost liver health, which in turn leads to more efficient cholesterol production in the liver, leading to lower LDL cholesterol levels.34)“Study Reveals Benefits of Red Clover for Prostate and Liver Health.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/023019_red_clover_Prostate_liver.html.35)“Red Clover Shown to Improve Bone Mineral Density and Lower LDL Cholesterol.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/025089_red_clover_estrogen_isoflavones.html. When you give the body what it needs, and get rid of the junk, it can do amazing things.

Red clover is an alternative. You could think of it as altering the body from a state of illness to a state of health. As such, it is appropriate for a wide variety of issues.

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Respiratory Health Supporter

Red clover is also an excellent herb for respiratory issues. It has antimicrobial properties and helps to break up congestion, making it useful for colds and bronchitis.36)Gladstar, Rosemary. Rosemary Gladstars Herbal Recipes for Vibrant Health. Pownal, VT: Storey, 2009. Clover also helps to quiet and relax spasmodic coughs and is especially indicated for whooping cough.37)Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003. Its antispasmodic qualities can also help with spasming muscles.38)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.

Benefits of Red Clover as a Brain Booster

Red comfrey boosts brain power (The Grow Network)

Image by Niek Verlaan from Pixabay

Benefits of red clover include positive effects on the brain, and red clover is even more effective when combined with ginkgo biloba.39)“Prophylactic Neuroprotective Efficiency of Co-Administration of Ginkgo Biloba and Trifolium Pretense against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Neurotoxicity and Dementia in Different Regions of Brain and Spinal Cord of Rats.” Prophylactic neuroprotective efficiency of co-administration of, July 19, 2016. https://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/ginkgo-biloba-and-red-clover-combination-was-more-effective-protective-agents-. This may be partially due to its tendency to improve circulation throughout the body. However, some of its brain-protective properties, such as its ability to block neurological damage from exposure to MSG, may be related to its other properties.40)“Red Clover Blocks Neurological Damage From MSG.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/024275_red_clover_food_MSG.html.

Nutritional Properties

Red clover leaves can be difficult to digest; cooking them can help (The Grow Network)

Image by Hans Braxmeier from Pixabay

Red clover is an excellent source of nutrition. However, the raw plant can be difficult to digest. Its nutrition becomes more accessible to the body if it is first cooked or if prepared as an infusion, especially a nourishing herbal infusion.

Many of red clover’s medicinal properties come from its role as a nutrient herb. This means that it is safe to consume in quantity, as you would any other food. Red clover is an excellent source of calcium, magnesium, niacin, phosphorus, potassium, thiamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, manganese, fiber, and more.

Preparation and Usage

Nourishing Herbal Infusion

Weigh out 1 ounce of dried red clover and place it in a pint jar. Boil water and pour it over the herb, filling the jar. Seal the lid and shake it up. Set the jar aside for at least 4 hours, though overnight is ideal. Now strain out the herbs and rebottle the infusion. Sip it throughout the day. This type of infusion will remain potent for around a day without refrigeration or around 3 days with refrigeration.

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Rosemary Gladstar has a breast health version of this infusion that also encourages healthy lymph flow.41)Gladstar, Rosemary. Rosemary Gladstars Herbal Recipes for Vibrant Health. Pownal, VT: Storey, 2009 Make the infusion as described above, but use the following herbal ratio: 2 parts calendula, 2 parts red clover, 1 part cleavers, 1 part lady’s mantle, and spearmint or peppermint for flavor.

Tea

Benefits of red clover flower tea (The Grow Network)

For a simple clover tea, pour 1 cup of boiling water over 1-3 teaspoons of dried clover. Cover and allow this to steep for around 15 minutes. Many people get good results when drinking this 3 times per day.42)Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003.

For a fun variation on clover tea, try this clover sun tea from Katrina Blair’s book, The Wild Wisdom of Weeds.43)Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014 Use 1 tablespoon dried clover flowers, 1 tablespoon dried clover leaves, 1 tablespoon hibiscus flowers, and a sprig of fresh mint. Place this in a quart-sized glass jar and fill it with water. Set it in full sun for 4 hours to infuse.

Tincture

To make a simple clover tincture, place your dried herbs in a jar and pour vodka over the herbs until they are covered by an inch or two. Close the lid and shake it all up. Label the jar and set it in a cool, dark location. Shake it up every day for a week or two. After 2 weeks, or longer, strain out the herbs and rebottle your new tincture. Use 2-4 ml up to 3 times per day.44)Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003.

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Note that red clover tinctures will have many of the medicinal properties of red clover. However, due to the quantity used, they will not contain enough nutrients to bring about the nutrition-based effects.

Capsules

Some people prefer to take red clover in capsule form (The Grow Network)

Image by GOKALP ISCAN from Pixabay

Some people find capsules to be more convenient than other applications. You can powder red clover and load it into blank capsules, available online and from some natural health stores. Studies indicate that 40 milligrams are effective for menopausal symptoms and skin health, and 20 grams are effective for improving bone density. Both results were measured after a 12-week period.45)Levy, Jillian. “Look No Further for Menopause Relief … and More!” Dr. Axe, March 25, 2016. https://draxe.com/nutrition/herbs/red-clover/.

Flower Fritters

This is intended as more of a food-type application than medicine. Pick clover blossoms and dip them in any simple batter. Then fry them in oil as fritters. Set them on a rack to drain away any excess oil and to cool them until they are safe to eat. But don’t wait until they get cold. Hot flower fritters are much tastier.

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Eating the Scenery

The entire red clover (Trifolium pratense) plant is edible. (The Grow Network)

Image by pitinhs from Pixabay

Clover blossoms make a nice treat when you’re out on a stroll. Make sure that your selected clovers haven’t been sprayed with pesticides or other dangerous chemicals. And make sure your blossom doesn’t still have a bee attached. They’re edible, too, but most people seem to shy away from this.

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The entire clover plant is edible. Raw leaves are harder to digest than cooked ones, so don’t eat too many until you learn what your system can tolerate. Also, younger leaves are much more palatable.


Clover Casserole

This is a variation of a spinach casserole recipe from The Food Network.46)“Creamed Spinach Casserole.” Food Network. Accessed September 24, 2019. https://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/trisha-yearwood/creamed-spinach-casserole-4697859.. If this is your first time using clovers in cooking, you might want to substitute ½ of the clovers with spinach, until you are sure that you like the flavor.

3 tablespoons unsalted butter
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 small onion, finely chopped
1-1/4 cups heavy cream
1-1/4 teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg
1/8 teaspoon cayenne
20 ounces of boiled clover, squeezed dry
salt and black pepper
1/2 cup grated Parmesan
2 ounces cream cheese
2 tablespoons panko breadcrumbs

Preheat your oven to 400 degrees F (200 C). Melt the butter in a saucepan on medium heat. Add garlic and onion, and cook for about 6 minutes, until softened. Add heavy cream, nutmeg, and cayenne. Bring to a simmer. Stir occasionally, until it thickens (about 5 minutes).

Add the clovers and half of the Parmesan. Now add your cream cheese and stir until it melts.  Add salt and pepper to taste. Transfer this to a baking dish and top with the remaining Parmesan and some panko breadcrumbs. Bake until light golden brown and bubbling, about 15 minutes.

Precaution and Contraindications

Keep a few precautions in mind when using red clover (The Grow Network)

Image by Couleur from Pixabay

As a nutritive herb, red clover is generally very safe and can be treated like most other foods. However, there are a few cautions you should keep in mind. You should avoid consuming any clover that shows signs of disease or fungal activity.

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People with hemophilia, “thin” blood, or who are on anticoagulant medications should be cautious with red clover. It’s blood-thinning properties could cause problems.47)Gladstar, Rosemary. Rosemary Gladstars Herbal Recipes for Vibrant Health. Pownal, VT: Storey, 2009.

Plant ID

Red clover illustration (The Grow Network)

Red clover is a perennial herb growing up to 16 inches (40 cm) tall. It has a hairy, upright, branching stem. The stems each end in 3 (rarely, 4) oval leaves. These leaves are soft to the touch and have a pale chevron pattern.

The chevron pattern also gives you an aid in finding 4-leaf clovers. On a 3-leaf clover, the chevrons on the leaves give the impression of a triangle. On a 4-leaf clover, they give the impression of a square. So instead of scanning a patch of clover, counting leaves, just look for squares.

Although it is called red clover, the flowers are actually pink to purple. The individual flowers are tiny, tube-shaped, and follow the banner, wing, and keel pattern of the Fabaceae family. They grow in a cluster that forms a rounded flower head. While in bloom, clovers will likely be buzzing with bees.

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Lookalike plants include other clovers (especially crimson clover, which is a deep red) and related plants, such as alfalfa and wild indigo. The bloom shape, bloom color, and chevron pattern on the leaves will help you to identify the correct plant.

Oxalis, or wood sorrel, is another potential lookalike. It is easily differentiated by its heart-shaped leaflets.

Always be sure of your identification before consuming any wild plant.

Where Red Clover Grows and Where to Find It

Red clover is native to Europe and Asia, but has been naturalized in North America and Australia. It has become widespread as an plant for agricultural use and can now be found throughout much of the world.

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Red clover prefers full sun and plenty of moisture to get started, though it is fairly drought-hardy once established. Fields, meadows, and pasturelands are ideal places to find red clover. It can be grown in most locations and is tolerant of colder climates.

How and When to Harvest Red Clover

How and when to harvest red clover

Flower heads are best when they are young, but fully opened. This will be in the summer. Pluck or cut off the blossom. Some people prefer to pick just the blooms, but a bit of stem is also acceptable.

If you are harvesting red clovers for food purposes, younger stems are better. The best food harvest will be before the plants blooms. However, you can harvest the plant at any stage. Boiling may help to improve the taste and digestibility.

What Do You Think?

Do you have any other clover recipes or medicinal uses for red clover? Have you ever found a 4-leaf clover? Let us know in the comments.

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References

References
1, 5, 6, 15, 16 Chevallier, Andrew. DK Natural Health: Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. New York: DK Pub., 2000.
2, 12, 25 “5 Benefits of Red Clover Tea.” Mercola.com. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://articles.mercola.com/teas/red-clover-tea.aspx.
3, 20, 34 “Study Reveals Benefits of Red Clover for Prostate and Liver Health.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/023019_red_clover_Prostate_liver.html.
4, 23, 37, 42, 44 Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003.
7, 8, 13, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 38 Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.
9, 36, 47 Gladstar, Rosemary. Rosemary Gladstars Herbal Recipes for Vibrant Health. Pownal, VT: Storey, 2009.
10, 24 Bone, Kerry, and Simon Mills. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy Modern Herbal Medicine. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, 2013.
11, 19 “Induction of Apoptosis in Low to Moderate-Grade Human Prostate Carcinoma by Red Clover-Derived Dietary Isoflavones.” Induction of apoptosis in low to moderate-grade human prostate, April 19, 2009. https://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/red-clover-isoflavones-induce-programmed-cell-death-human-prostate-cells.
14, 17, 45 Levy, Jillian. “Look No Further for Menopause Relief … and More!” Dr. Axe, March 25, 2016. https://draxe.com/nutrition/herbs/red-clover/.
18 Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh, Ramin Sadeghi, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari, Khadijeh Mirzaii Najmabadi, Mojtaba Mousavi Bazaz, Somayeh Abdolahian, and Talat Khadivzadeh. “Effects of Red Clover on Hot Flash and Circulating Hormone Concentrations in Menopausal Women: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Avicenna journal of phytomedicine. Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 2015. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678495/.
21 “6 Hormone Balancing Powers Of Red Clover.” GreenMedInfo, July 3, 2015. https://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/6-hormone-balancing-powers-red-clover.
22 Pedersen, Mark. Nutritional Herbology: a Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications, 2010.
26 Hoffmann, David. Medical Herbalism the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 2003
29, 35 “Red Clover Shown to Improve Bone Mineral Density and Lower LDL Cholesterol.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/025089_red_clover_estrogen_isoflavones.html.
30 “Red Clover Vs. White Clover.” LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.livestrong.com/article/462446-red-clover-vs-white-clover/.
39 “Prophylactic Neuroprotective Efficiency of Co-Administration of Ginkgo Biloba and Trifolium Pretense against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Neurotoxicity and Dementia in Different Regions of Brain and Spinal Cord of Rats.” Prophylactic neuroprotective efficiency of co-administration of, July 19, 2016. https://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/ginkgo-biloba-and-red-clover-combination-was-more-effective-protective-agents-.
40 “Red Clover Blocks Neurological Damage From MSG.” NaturalNews. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.naturalnews.com/024275_red_clover_food_MSG.html.
41 Gladstar, Rosemary. Rosemary Gladstars Herbal Recipes for Vibrant Health. Pownal, VT: Storey, 2009
43 Blair, Katrina. The Wild Wisdom of Weeds: 13 Essential Plants for Human Survival. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014
46 “Creamed Spinach Casserole.” Food Network. Accessed September 24, 2019. https://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/trisha-yearwood/creamed-spinach-casserole-4697859.
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