I have a lot of respect for Ruth Stout. She was quite a person, as a glance through one of her books will rapidly reveal. Her book Gardening Without Work: For the Aging, the Busy & the Indolent has been a cult classic since the 1950s, and the sheet mulch method has come into new popularity recently thanks to author Patricia Lanza and her book Lasagna Gardening: A New Layering System for Bountiful Gardens.
The inspiring film Back to Eden also features a variant of this method as used by farmer Paul Gautschi. (You can read my review of the film here.)
Proponents brag that this method requires no tilling, no weeding, and almost no work.
Could this be the best gardening method ever? Let’s take a look.
What Is the Sheet Mulch Method?
The sheet mulch garden uses layers of mulch to crush weeds, keep the soil moist, and add organic matter. If you’re gardening on clay, it also has a major loosening effect over time. Stout’s preferred mulch was straw, rotten or fresh, but she advocated using whatever organic matter you could scavenge.
If you go for the modern “lasagna gardening” incarnation, you put down a layer of cardboard or newspapers right over a patch of weeds or lawn, then stack a foot or two of varied organic materials on top of that, including compost, manure, straw, leaves, or whatever you have available. Plant into that and you have an instant garden.
Why Is This Method a Godsend?
The great thing about the sheet mulch gardening method is what it does for your soil. As an example: I once had a few red oak trees removed from my yard. When the men from the tree company took them down, they chopped up the trunks and larger branches and started raking great big piles of smaller sticks and leaves together. That gave me an idea. Why not pile those in a corner of my yard and let them compost?
The tree crew happily obliged and we stacked them up.
The next spring, the debris had settled. Curious to see what the ground was like beneath, I started digging. What had formerly been dead, gray sand was now a rich, black loam, filled with earthworms and soil life. That patch of ground was one of the best spots in my yard for years. No tilling, no fertilizing or adding of amendments. Just a big stack of organic matter left to rot in place, and I was looking at grade-A soil.
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Imagine doing the same in your garden plot. I’ve done it multiple times now, and I can assure you that the results are impressive. If you’ve got bad soil, sandy soil or even clay, a deep layer of mulch will fix it.
Another benefit of the sheet mulch method is that it’s easier than traditional composting. Just chuck your leaves, kitchen scraps, cardboard, etc., into the garden and bury them as needed. An impressive amount of soil life emerges in short order.
When I lived in Tennessee, sheet mulching transformed a patch of hard clay and Bermuda grass into a rich patch of garden. Over time, the clay darkened and loosened beneath my beds. I was amazed by the transformation. Tilling would have been a nightmare, but deep mulching gave me something amazing to work with.
One final benefit of this method: water conservation. Over time, the ground becomes so rich with humus that it acts as a sponge. Even during long dry spells, the layers beneath the surface are cool and moist. You can see in the Back to Eden film, as well—the comparison to the dry, baked dirt elsewhere on Gautschi’s property is astounding.
Why Is This Method From the Devil?
And now for the downside: Sheet mulching is not an easy alternative to double-digging, despite Ruth Stout’s assurances that it’s no work. Why? Because you spend all your time scrounging for materials.
This is not something you can do halfway. Getting lots of wood chips, straw, stable bedding, leaves, pine needles, compost, and other mulching materials isn’t always easy. If you don’t own a truck and don’t have friends with large farms or livestock, finding enough material to cover a large garden is a pain. You don’t want to just put down an inch or 2 of mulch, either. You want to put down a foot. When you do that, the weeds don’t have a chance. If you skimp, you’ll pay for it. Ever try hoeing in mulch? It’s a royal pain.
Another downside: Back in Ruth Stout’s day, straw and manure weren’t contaminated with longterm herbicides like the infinitely evil Grazon(TM) from Dow AgroSciences. When you lasagna garden today, you’re often relying on materials from outside your homestead—materials that may end up killing your garden for the next 5 years. That’s a risk I’m not willing to take. I don’t trust hay, straw, or manures anymore.
I got nailed once—that was enough.
Here’s a video showing what a contaminated garden looks like:
Additionally, I listed one of the benefits of sheet mulching as being its ability to foster worms and other soil life. Unfortunately, this also carries over to slugs and snails. The second year I had a mulch garden, I ended up with an incredible amount of slugs. After a week of trapping and killing the buggers, I was free; yet they never would have been a problem without all the nice, moist mulch they’d been breeding in.
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Finally, sheet mulching simply makes no sense if you’re going to garden on any kind of decent acreage. The materials are simply too tough to acquire in quantity or to deal with. If you had a modest 1/4-acre garden, covering it with mulch would be a full-time job. This may be a good method for small spaces—but it’s often a nonstarter for larger plots.
After a day of throwing mulch around a large plot, you’ll be ready to quit gardening forever.
How to Sheet Mulch
First, pick your garden plot and mark out the edges. If it’s full of tall grass or weeds, mow it down, leave the clippings in place, and water thoroughly. You want it wet before you cover the ground with mulch.
Next, get yourself a bunch of cardboard or newspaper and cover the entire space, overlapping to make sure nothing comes through. The same applies to newspaper: a nice thick layer is best. Though some will say you can get away with a single layer of cardboard or roughly 6 sheets of newspaper, 2 or 3 times that is better. Some weeds are hard to crush.
After this weed-block layer is down, wet it thoroughly and start adding mulch. A good mix is best. Basically, you’re composting in place, so if you can mix grass clippings with pine bark, straw with manure, leaves with coffee grounds, etc., things will break down better. But the main thing is: stack it high with whatever you can get—and water as you go.
You can watch me make a sheet mulch garden in this video:
If you want to plant right away, you can pull back some of the mulch, add pockets of compost, and then plant seeds or transplants. The best results, however, come a year or so after you’ve established your garden patch. By that point, the cardboard has rotted away and you’ve hopefully added mulch on top a few more times as the previous layers have settled. The ground beneath is now full of life and compost and your plants are strong and healthy from the abundance of moisture in the soil.
See some weeds that managed to peek through? Throw yesterday’s bad news on them or suffocate them with mulch. Once you’ve done the groundwork, a deep mulch garden is pretty easy to maintain. Just don’t ever till it under or you’ll undo all your hard work.
Final Deep Thoughts On Sheet Mulching
There’s plenty to love about the sheet mulch/Back to Eden/Ruth Stout/lasagna gardening method of piling on organic matter. After multiple years of fiddling with the various incarnations of “stack and forget” gardening, I still occasionally use it when I have some materials.
But as my plots have expanded, it gets harder and harder to pile tons of organic matter into my annual gardens. Rather, I put my leaves, cornstalks, and other “waste” directly on the ground around my longterm perennials and trees or drop them into the compost pile. I love deep mulching for my perennials, but use it less on annual gardens.
I also cover how you can use lasagna gardening/sheet mulching as a simple composting method in my best-selling book Compost Everything: The Good Guide to Extreme Composting.
Sheet mulching can be one of the best gardening methods—but I wouldn’t say it’s always the best in every circumstance. Sometimes I prefer wide rows, sometimes I like double-digging, and sometimes I forget about annuals altogether and plant food forest systems.
Don’t think that means I wouldn’t shake Ruth’s hand if she were still with us—anyone with that much passion for gardening is A+ in my book, even if her method doesn’t work for everyone in every situation.
David The Good is a Grow Network Change Maker, a gardening expert, and the author of five books you can find on Amazon: Compost Everything: The Good Guide to Extreme Composting, Grow or Die: The Good Guide to Survival Gardening, Totally Crazy Easy Florida Gardening, Create Your Own Florida Food Forest, and Push the Zone: The Good Guide to Growing Tropical Plants Beyond the Tropics. Find fresh gardening inspiration at his website TheSurvivalGardener.com and be sure to follow his popular YouTube channel.
This method is great. Thanks for sharing, I always love reading more information on this topic.
As David mentions, this is an excellent method for clay heavy soil. It works great for urban/suburban gardeners who might not have a lot of room for a large garden. A suggestion, start one plot, and enlarge it using this method each year. You still need to mulch each plot heavily, but that first season really does most of the work for you.
You gave another name to Back to Eden gardening, that’s all. That method is well-known everywhere.
I live in a suburban community with limited space. Backyard is shaded a lot of the day from neighbors trees. Front yard gets the sun. Would love to learn your ideas on how to grow edible crops in the front yard that’s attractive and doesn’t look obviously like a typical vegetable garden. Sheet mulching is great for a spacious field, but not for our area that promotes a “manicured” landscape.
I have interplanted vegetables into my flower bed, which was just one year old when I began to inter-plant. I grew Swiss chard, corn, Brussel sprouts, celery, among hydrangeas, roses and an elderberry bush. No on in my neighbourhood said anything about it. I too considered creating a
food forest in my north facing front yard and I looked at the way the sun moved over the area: one Manitoba maple on the west, a fir on the east. I didn’t want to plant trees with height because they’d keep the sun out of my north facing window where I have my indoor plants growing. I have put in 2 sea buckthorn bushes on the west side, because the maple already creates shade over the front yard for several hours a day. So, the food forest idea is on hold for now.