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9+ Benefits of Marshmallow: Healing and Soothing for the Gut, Lungs, Skin, and More

Marshmallow

Botanical Name: Althaea officinalis

Family: Malavaceae

Other Common Names: Marsh mallow, marsh-mallow, cheese plant (cheeses)

Parts Used: Roots, flowers, leaves

Energetics: Moist

Thermal Properties: Cool

Actions: Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, immune modulating, nutritive, skin protectant, vulnerary

Taste: Sweet

Plant Uses: Burns, ulcers, irritable bowel diseases, respiratory infection, dry mouth, sore throat, skin health, general soothing anywhere in the body

Plant Preparations: Cold infusion, oil infusion, lip balms, moisturizer creams, cough syrup, lozenges, food

Toxicities/Warnings: Marshmallow is generally well-tolerated, but can affect the absorption of other medications. Marshmallow can lower blood sugar.

Introduction

Marshmallow is a gentle, soothing plant with a tendency to calm irritated, inflamed tissues and to facilitate the healing process. These properties were recognized by the taxonomists who named it. “Althea” is from the Greek and means “to heal” or “healing power.” “Officinalis” is a commonly applied name for plants with a history of medicinal use. It refers specifically to a room in a monastery where medicinal plants were kept. It can be thought of as denoting an “official” healing plant. Thus, both parts of marshmallow’s scientific name refer to its ability to heal. Marshmallow is “the official healing plant of healing.”

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The family name, Malvaceae, also comes from a Greek word, “malake,” meaning “soft.” This is in reference to the mucilage common to marshmallow and other members of this family.

Marshmallow has a long history of medicinal and edible uses. While an exact timeline cannot be formed, its healing properties have been recognized at least as long ago as Homer wrote the Iliad. But it was probably in use long before that. As a historical food, marshmallow has a possible reference as far back as the Old Testament book of Job, though this may depend on which translation you’re reading. Regardless of which translation is correct, the plant is quite edible.

Benefits

  • Soothing Demulcent: Relieve irritated, inflamed tissues throughout the body.1)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/.
  • Urinary Health: Flush out UTI bacteria while lubricating and easing the passage of stones.2)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.
  • Quiet Coughs: Relax spasming airways and soothe a sore throat.3)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/.4)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.5)Sendker, Jandirk, Ines Böker, Isabelle Lengers, Simone Brandt, Joachim Jose, Timo Stark, Thomas Hofmann, Careen Fink, Heba Abdel-Aziz, and Andreas Hensel. “Phytochemical Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Constituents from Marshmallow Roots (Althaea Officinalis) and Inhibiting Effects of the Aqueous Extract on Human Hyaluronidase-1.” Journal of Natural Products80, no. 2 (2017): 290-97. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00670.6)Fink, Careen, Mathpreias Schmidt, and Karin Kraft. “Marshmallow Root Extract for the Treatment of Irritative Cough: Two Surveys on Users View on Effectiveness and Tolerability.” Complementary Medicine Research 25, no. 5 (2018): 299-305. doi:10.1159/000489560.
  • Eliminate Toxins: Marshmallow binds to toxins, improving the body’s ability to cleanse itself.7)Pedersen, Mark. Nutritional Herbology: A Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications, 2010.
  • Speed Healing: Marshmallow helps irritated and injured tissues relax to speed the healing process, and has even been used to prevent gangrene.8)Pedersen, Mark. Nutritional Herbology: A Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications, 2010.9)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.10)Rezaei, M., Z. Dadgar, A. Noori-Zadeh, SA Mesbah-Namin, I. Pakzad, and E. Davodian. “Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of the Althaea Officinalis L. Leaf Extract and Its Wound Healing Potency in the Rat Model of Excision Wound Creation.” Avicenna J Phytomed5, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 105-12. Accessed July 13, 2019.
  • Skin Care: Marshmallow is excellent for relieving and healing skin irritations and burns.11)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/.
  • Digestive Care: Coat and protect the digestive system with marshmallow’s mucilage. Relieve pain from heartburn, ulcers, and inflammatory bowel diseases.12)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/.13)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.
  • Immune Function: Marshmallow stimulates the immune system to attack invaders, and has antibacterial properties of its own.14)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.15)Rezaei, M., Z. Dadgar, A. Noori-Zadeh, SA Mesbah-Namin, I. Pakzad, and E. Davodian. “Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of the Althaea Officinalis L. Leaf Extract and Its Wound Healing Potency in the Rat Model of Excision Wound Creation.” Avicenna J Phytomed5, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 105-12. Accessed July 13, 2019.
  • Healthy Joints: Reduce swelling and joint pain.16)Pedersen, Mark. Nutritional Herbology: A Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications, 2010.17)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.
  • Plays Well With Others: Marshmallow cooperates well with other herbs to support overall health, especially other anti-inflammatories and antibacterials. It can act as a buffer for herbs that may be too stimulating on their own.18)Pedersen, Mark. Nutritional Herbology: A Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications, 2010.19)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.

Medicinal Properties

Marshmallow is equal parts healer and comforter. Its primary functions are to soothe, to quiet, and to let the body know that “everything is going to be alright.” The primary driver behind many of these actions are its abundance of polysaccharides. These become slippery and slimy when mixed with water, and have the ability to coat and protect tissues that they come into contact with. Polysaccharides can be seen in varying degrees in other members of the mallow family, such as okra and hibiscus, and have a number of helpful effects.

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Marshmallow can be applied directly to the skin to relieve the discomfort of burns, bites, stings, rashes, and other skin irritations/injuries. It coats the affected area, protecting it from drying out and other irritations, and works to reduce the heat and swelling of inflammation.20)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/. Marshmallow is also antibacterial, fighting infection at the site.21)Rezaei, M., Z. Dadgar, A. Noori-Zadeh, SA Mesbah-Namin, I. Pakzad, and E. Davodian. “Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of the Althaea Officinalis L. Leaf Extract and Its Wound Healing Potency in the Rat Model of Excision Wound Creation.” Avicenna J Phytomed5, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 105-12. Accessed July 13, 2019. And it stimulates the immune system to eat away at invading microbes and foreign materials.22)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/. Marshmallow has even been used in the prevention of gangrene.23)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/.

But marshmallow’s effects are not limited to the skin. Acid reflux, ulcers, and irritable bowel diseases all typically respond well to marshmallow. Once again, the polysaccharides do the bulk of the work, coating, protecting, and soothing damaged areas of the GI tract. While protecting damaged areas, marshmallow also works to speed healing.24)Rezaei, M., Z. Dadgar, A. Noori-Zadeh, SA Mesbah-Namin, I. Pakzad, and E. Davodian. “Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of the Althaea Officinalis L. Leaf Extract and Its Wound Healing Potency in the Rat Model of Excision Wound Creation.” Avicenna J Phytomed5, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 105-12. Accessed July 13, 2019. Its mucilage may also help to block the gaps in a leaky gut.25)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/. However, marshmallow alone may not be enough to completely remedy these conditions. A more holistic approach is needed to determine their causes.

Thus far, we’ve looked at marshmallow’s effects when it comes into direct contact with tissues. These are fairly straightforward. However, other cases are a bit more mysterious. Marshmallow’s mucilage is not well-absorbed by the body. One would think that this would make it ineffective at soothing anything beyond the skin or digestive system. But this is not the case. Marshmallow is effective even on distant tissues and systems. One theory is that marshmallow may stimulate a moistening effect throughout the body.26)Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/. Whatever the cause, marshmallow’s soothing properties seem to be able to reach just about everywhere.

The respiratory system is another area where marshmallow really shines. Its soothing and cooling nature makes it one of the primary herbs for quieting a dry, unproductive cough.27)Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.28)Sendker, Jandirk, Ines Böker, Isabelle Lengers, Simone Brandt, Joachim Jose, Timo Stark, Thomas Hofmann, Careen Fink, Heba Abdel-Aziz, and Andreas Hensel. “Phytochemical Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Constituents from Marshmallow Roots (Althaea Officinalis) and Inhibiting Effects of the Aqueous Extract on Human Hyaluronidase-1.” Journal of Natural Products80, no. 2 (2017): 290-97. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00670. Marshmallow has even been shown to be more effective at reducing coughs than non-narcotic pharmaceuticals.29)Sutovska, M., G. Nosalova, S. Franova, and A. Kardosova. “The Antitussive Activity of Polysaccharides from Althaea Officinalis L., Var. Robusta, Arctium Kappa L., Var. Herkules, and Prunus Persica L., Batsch.” Bratislavske Lekarske Listy108, no. 2 (February 2007): 93-99. Accessed July 13, 2019. Its mucilage coats and moisturizes the back of the throat while attacking bacterial invaders and marshaling the immune system. Marshmallow also tends to harmonize well with other herbal remedies to fight off respiratory infection, especially other anti-inflammatory and antibacterial herbs.

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Marshmallow has uses as a purifying herb. It has a tendency to bind with toxins, allowing the body to flush them out more effectively. Its role as a diuretic also helps to facilitate purification. And as a diuretic, it helps to flush out bacteria and stones in the urinary tract. Marshmallow’s demulcent nature even helps to lubricate their passage out of the body, making the passage of stones less painful.

Lastly, marshmallow can help with joint pain. Its diuretic effect helps to reduce joint swelling, while its anti-inflammatory and lubricating nature helps the joints move easier and with less pain. Overall, marshmallow is an excellent herb for any hot, dry, inflamed area of the body.

Nutritional Properties

Aside from being a medicinal plant, marshmallow is also a fine food. It, and related species, have been eaten in China, much of Europe, and just about everywhere else they have grown. Although the plant is no longer a staple, its namesake the marshmallow lives on in our modern foods. Unfortunately, modern marshmallows no longer contain the actual plant.

But marshmallow isn’t just for dessert. It’s an excellent source of iron, magnesium, and selenium. It’s a good source of chromium, fiber, and Vitamin C, and has a respectable amount of protein, potassium, phosphorus, niacin, manganese, and calcium.

On the flip side, the actual amounts of nutrients absorbed through the digestion process may be slightly lower than what are listed in the table. This would be due to the mucilage coating everything, creating a physical barrier to absorption. This doesn’t negate the nutrition of marshmallow, but it could reduce its nutritive value somewhat.

Marshmallow Root Nutritional Profile

Preparation and Usage 

Marshmallow is a very versatile herb, lending itself to a variety of preparations. It’s generally very safe, and can be used as needed. Multiple cups of tea (cold infusion) may be needed daily. For digestive distress, 6 grams per day, by any preparation method, may be effective. However, this will vary by person and condition. Topically, marshmallow may be used freely. Apply it directly to the affected area.

Marshmallow can be used medicinally with dogs and cats as it would be with people. The leaves and flowers are edible for humans and animals.

Cold Infusion

Fill a jar about a third of the way with dried marshmallow root. Then fill the rest of the jar with water. Let it sit overnight, or for at least 4 hours, before using. Strain, then sip the tea as needed. It’s wonderful for those who wake up with dry mouth in the middle of the night. Just set a cup out on your nightstand, and take a sip as needed.

Marshmallow tea

If you’re in a hurry, you can also make a hot infusion by pouring boiling water over the marshmallow root. However, this method is less effective at pulling out the healing mucilage and may produce a less pleasing texture.

Alcohol infusions are also possible, though they are less common. An alcohol concentration over 20% will break down the medicinal polysaccharides, diminishing its usefulness.

Cough Syrup

Adapted from WellnessMama.com

  • 1 quart water
  • 1/4 cup ginger root powder
  • 1/4 cup chamomile
  • 1/4 cup marshmallow root
  • 1 tablespoon cinnamon
  • 1/4 cup lemon juice
  • 1 cup raw honey

Add water and herbs to a medium saucepan. Bring to a boil, then reduce to a simmer. Continue simmering until the volume is reduced by half. Remove from heat. Strain out the herbs, then add the lemon juice and honey, and stir. Store your cough syrup in an airtight container in the refrigerator.

Lozenges

Many store-bought lozenges are basically candy. These marshmallow lozenges are more medicinal, though they won’t have the sugary flavor. If you miss that sweet taste, you can add licorice root to your marshmallow infusion.

  • 1/4 cup (or just under) marshmallow infusion
  • 2 tablespoons raw honey
  • 1/2 cup slippery elm bark powder

Pour your honey into a measuring cup, then add the marshmallow infusion up to the 1/4-cup mark and stir. Pour your slippery elm bark into a bowl, and pour the marshmallow/honey solution on top of this. Use your fingers to mix it all together until it becomes dough-like and you can form it into balls. Break off pieces at your preferred size and roll them into balls. Set these out to dry for approximately 24 hours, or until completely dry. Wrap each lozenge individually in wax paper and store in a cool, dark place.

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Infused Oil

A marshmallow-infused oil is an excellent way of bringing two medicinal products together into one soothing package. It also makes a good base for other herbal products. Coconut, olive, grape seed, jojoba, and sunflower are all popular oils for infusion.

To make an infused oil, fill a jar about 1/2 to 3/4 full with marshmallow root. Then pour oil over the herb until you fill the jar. Close the lid and shake it up. Place the jar in a brown paper bag, and fold over the top to protect it from direct sunlight. Place the bag in a warm, sunny location for 2 weeks. You may now strain out the herbs and rebottle the oil. Store it in a cool, dark place. A refrigerator would be ideal.

Infused oil can be rubbed directly onto your skin or hair, and can be added to other herbal concoctions as well. Add it to moisturizer creams, herbal shampoos, natural sunscreens, or any number of other products.

[This would be a good place to link to the herbal skincare/sunscreen article.]

Lip Balm

Adapted from Herbal Academy

  • 3-1/2 tablespoons marshmallow-infused coconut oil (or 1-1/2 tablespoons coconut oil and 2 tablespoons infused other oil)
  • 1-1/2 tablespoons beeswax pastiles

Add all of the ingredients to a double boiler and heat over medium-low heat until everything is completely melted. Remove from heat and pour into metal tins or lip balm containers. You can use an oral syringe to fine tune your fill level. Just know that you’ll probably never get the syringe clean again. I should also mention that the beeswax residue will be difficult to remove from your double boiler. Having a spare double boiler, dedicated to herbal medicine, is a good strategy.

Allow the container to cool and harden before closing the lid.

Homemade Marshmallows

If you’ve been curious about the connection between marshmallow the plant and marshmallow the confection, then this recipe is for you. Plus, you’ll be getting the health benefits of the herb without all the corn syrup and artificial ingredients of store-bought mallows.

This recipe uses gelatin. It’s not a traditional ingredient, but it simplifies and speeds up the process tremendously, and yields a superior mallow. If you’d like to experiment with a more historically faithful recipe, you can find one in Edible Wild Plants by John Kallus. But for now, let’s continue with the easier method.

  • 1 tablespoon marshmallow root powder
  • 1 cup warm water
  • 1/4 cup unflavored gelatin powder
  • 1 cup honey
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla (or other creative flavoring)

Add marshmallow root powder and water to a mason jar, and close the lid. If your marshmallow root is more coarsely ground, you might want to add just a little extra water, since you won’t be able to get 100% of the moisture back when you drain it later.

Shake it up really well to get the mixing process started. Then set it aside for 15 minutes to overnight. The longer it sets, the stronger the marshmallow flavor imparted. If you’d like a more medicinal mallow, you can use a cold infusion. (See instructions above.)

Strain the liquid, making sure that you have a whole cup. Pour half of the liquid into a bowl and add the gelatin. Use a whisk or hand mixer to incorporate the gelatin into the liquid and set this aside.

Pour the other half of the liquid into a saucepan and add the honey. You can also add cocoa powder at this stage, if you’d like to make chocolate marshmallows. Stir as you bring the mixture to a boil. Using a kitchen thermometer, bring the mixture to 240°F (115°C). Be careful that the mixture doesn’t bubble over.

Slowly pour this mixture into the bowl of gelatin and marshmallow liquid, as you mix it on medium with your hand mixer. Gradually bring the mixer to high and whisk for 10-15 minutes, or until the mixture gains a stiff marshmallow cream consistency. Add any flavorings toward the end of this process.

Rub coconut oil over a 9″x13″ baking dish, or line it with parchment paper. Pour the marshmallows into the pan and smooth them down. Cover the dish and let it rest for 4 hours or overnight. Then flip the dish onto a cutting board. You may need to use a spatula to get it started. Use an oiled pizza cutter or knife to cut the marshmallows into pieces according to the desired size. An optional dusting of powdered sugar (or a mixture of corn starch and powdered sugar) will keep the mallows from sticking to each other in a container.

Here is a video clip showing the process with chocolate marshmallows:

 

Precautions and Contraindications

If you are allergic to okra, you may also have an allergy to marshmallow. Use caution. Otherwise, marshmallow is a wonderfully safe herb that can be used by virtually everyone. You should also be aware that marshmallow preparations can inhibit or slow down the absorption of medicines and other medicinal herbs. This is also true of other highly mucilaginous plants. Avoid taking marshmallow preparations for a few hours around other medications.

Diabetics and people taking medication to control blood sugar should monitor their glucose levels while taking marshmallow, due to marshmallow’s blood-sugar-lowering effects. Marshmallow can also affect how well the body excretes lithium. People taking lithium should talk with their doctor to see if their dosage should be changed.

Plant ID

Marshmallow is a herbaceous perennial growing 2-4 feet (0.6-1.2 meters) tall. The plant has multiple erect, hairy stems and soft, fuzzy, triangular leaves that are pleasant to the touch. The leaves have irregular, toothy margins and will often have 3 or 5 lobes. The flowers have 5 white to very light pink petals and a pink to purple center. The fruit of the marshmallow is a circular arrangement of seed capsules, resembling a wheel of cheese. The roots are pale yellow, long, thick, and tapered.

Marshmallow has a similar appearance to many other plants in the Malavaceae family, and all mallow family members tend to be slimy when crushed. Be sure to carefully identify your species. Thankfully, this family is almost universally nontoxic, with nearly every member having something edible about it. The cotton plant is an exception.

Note that the garden flower Althaea (also known as Rose of Sharon) usually refers to Hibiscus syriacus. This is not the same plant as Althaea officinalis (marshmallow).

Where It Grows

As you might guess, a marshmallow is a mallow of the marsh. It prefers to grow in moist ground along riverbanks, coastal areas, salt marshes, and the sides of ditches. Marshmallow is not overly picky about soil or sunlight and can grow in zones 3-9.

Marshmallow is native to Europe, Northern Africa, and Western Asia. It can also be found sporadically in North America and elsewhere across the globe where it has escaped cultivation, rarely becoming invasive.

How and When to Harvest

Roots are best when harvested in the fall and winter. That’s then the polysaccharide content is highest. Ideally, you’ll choose a plant in its second or third year. Younger plants may not have enough roots and older ones may be woody. Either of these can be used, but are not ideal. Cut up the roots while they are still fresh. If you let them dry out first, they will be harder to work with.

The leaves are best just before the plant goes into flower, usually in later summer or early fall. You may find it more convenient to cut the whole stem, rather than pulling individual leaves off. If you only harvest the tops, leaving several inches of leaves below, the plant will recover and can offer future harvests. Flowers are harvested when they are blooming.

Conclusion

Marshmallow has a long history of medicinal and culinary uses, and modern medical science has finally realized the truth of many of these traditional uses. It’s a gentle soother and healer, not only of the skin and digestive system, but throughout the body. Best of all, it’s safe for nearly everyone. (See the Precautions and Contraindications section above.)

What Do You Think?

If you’ve tried marshmallow, or have other recipes and uses we didn’t mention, let us know about it in the comments.

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References

References
1, 3, 11, 12, 20, 23, 26 Forêt, Rosalee De La. “Marshmallow.” HerbMentor. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://herbmentor.learningherbs.com/herb/marshmallow/.
2, 4, 9, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, 25, 27 Levy, Jillian. “Marshmallow Root: The Ultimate Gut and Lung Protector.” Dr. Axe. July 30, 2018. Accessed July 09, 2019. https://draxe.com/marshmallow-root/.
5, 28 Sendker, Jandirk, Ines Böker, Isabelle Lengers, Simone Brandt, Joachim Jose, Timo Stark, Thomas Hofmann, Careen Fink, Heba Abdel-Aziz, and Andreas Hensel. “Phytochemical Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Constituents from Marshmallow Roots (Althaea Officinalis) and Inhibiting Effects of the Aqueous Extract on Human Hyaluronidase-1.” Journal of Natural Products80, no. 2 (2017): 290-97. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00670.
6 Fink, Careen, Mathpreias Schmidt, and Karin Kraft. “Marshmallow Root Extract for the Treatment of Irritative Cough: Two Surveys on Users View on Effectiveness and Tolerability.” Complementary Medicine Research 25, no. 5 (2018): 299-305. doi:10.1159/000489560.
7, 8, 16, 18 Pedersen, Mark. Nutritional Herbology: A Reference Guide to Herbs. Warsaw, IN: Whitman Publications, 2010.
10, 15, 21, 24 Rezaei, M., Z. Dadgar, A. Noori-Zadeh, SA Mesbah-Namin, I. Pakzad, and E. Davodian. “Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of the Althaea Officinalis L. Leaf Extract and Its Wound Healing Potency in the Rat Model of Excision Wound Creation.” Avicenna J Phytomed5, no. 2 (March/April 2015): 105-12. Accessed July 13, 2019.
29 Sutovska, M., G. Nosalova, S. Franova, and A. Kardosova. “The Antitussive Activity of Polysaccharides from Althaea Officinalis L., Var. Robusta, Arctium Kappa L., Var. Herkules, and Prunus Persica L., Batsch.” Bratislavske Lekarske Listy108, no. 2 (February 2007): 93-99. Accessed July 13, 2019.
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